March 22, 2021
From PM Press
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By Erna Kurbegović
Labor/Le Travai
Fall 2020

Birth Strike: The Hidden Fight Over Women’s Work by Jenny Brown (review) Erna Kurbegović Labour / Le Travail, Issue 86, Fall 2020, pp. 210-212 (Review) Published by The Canadian Committee on Labour History DOI

For additional information about this article [Access provided at 19 Feb 2021 21:08 GMT from Columbia University Libraries] https://doi.org/10.1353/llt.2020.0055

Jenny Brown, Birth Strike: The Hidden Fight Over Women’s Work (Oakland, CA: PM Press 2019)

In Birth Strike, Jenny Brown provides an analysis of the declining birth rate in the United States, an area that has not received much attention from femi­nist scholars in their discussions of the struggle over reproductive rights. Brown argues that the conflict over birth control and abortion has less to do with culture or religion and more to do with econom­ics, that is, corporate and establishment interests in “an ever-expanding work­force raised with a minimum of public spending.” (11) Brown argues that the “ruling group” is interested in women

having more babies to ensure a steady supply of workers whose labour the “powerful class” can exploit for increased profits. As Brown demonstrates, in recent years, government planners have become increasingly concerned that the low US birth rate would lead to economic stagna­tion. Instead of following in the footsteps of comparable countries, such as France or Sweden, who have introduced pro-na­talist policies (subsidized childcare, paid parental leave, universal health care) to help raise the birthrate, the government planners in the United States have made it more difficult to afford having children, while at the same time creating barriers for women who want to control their reproduction by limiting their access to birth control and abortion. This means that the cost of childbearing and chil­drearing falls on the family, especially on women, whose domestic labour is under­valued and unpaid. Brown suggests that the slowdown in the birth rate represents a “strike” by women responding to poor conditions associated with having and raising children. (43)

Birth Strike is divided into eleven chapters that focus on topics includ­ing abortion and contraception in the United States since the late 19th century, concerns over overpopulation, the de­bates over social security, reproduction and race, immigrant labour, discussions about unpaid work, and other issues as­sociated with the relationship between population and state. Generally, these chapters are used to further Brown’s ar­gument that reproductive debates have always been about economics as much or more than anything else.

The greatest contribution that Brown makes is in broadening the discourse on what women’s reproductive labour is, what it means to society, and how this is an underappreciated aspect of ongoing women’s reproduction struggles in the United States. Brown conveys in vivid detail in what is the strongest chapter in the book, the experiences of ordinary women who chose to have children and those who did not. Through testimonies from seventeen women, the reader is ex­posed to the decisions that many women are forced to make about having children when they lack adequate support to raise them. Later in the book, Brown offers a blueprint for how women can use their reproductive power to call for change, including participating in consciousness-raising groups that allow women to com­pare their experiences but also to think about, for instance, who benefits from their pregnancies and their unpaid work; exposing the reasons for the low birth rate; and demanding better programs that give women support when they de­cide to have children, for example uni­versal childcare. Highlighting the poor conditions for bearing and raising chil­dren in the United States, emphasizing women’s reproductive power, and pro­viding a path to improving their circum­stances is when Birth Strike is the most convincing.

However, Birth Strike suffers from sig­nificant shortcomings. The book lacks cohesion as the chapters cover enormous, complicated, and multi-causal top­ics which the author relates sometimes unconvincingly to their central thesis. Brown’s emphasis on the concerted ac­tions by a “ruling elite” in some chap­ters is borderline conspiratorial and ignores better explanations for these complicated dynamics. For example, the chapter, “Cannon Fodder” depicts a war mongering elite callously and cynically harnessing reproductive power to fight their wars. A better analysis might ex­plore the changing relationship between the state and its populace, and in what context the citizenry became viewed as a national resource that could be used to increase the power and capacity of the state (through, for example, increased

labour, superior public health, and ad­ministrative bureaucracy). In addition, this chapter could have been better inte­grated into the book, as it is unclear how it connects to the preceding chapter on cheap labour and the following chapter on women’s leverage regarding repro­ductive work. Other chapters detract for Brown’s overall argument. For example, in “Reproduction and Race,” Brown dis­cusses the racist population control poli­cies aimed at African American women, including involuntary sterilization and birth control campaigns, but Brown’s claim that the “ruling class” wants all women to have more babies to ensure a future workforce is difficult to reconcile with the evidence that Brown presents. Lastly, the book would benefit from a conclusion that would tie different chap­ters together and strengthen Brown’s central argument. Overall, Birth Strike is an effective re-evaluation of women’s re­productive labour and a timely call to ac­tion, but the sheer breadth of issues that the book attempts to cover and relate to reproduction means that some chapters are unconvincing and end up weakening the author’s overall argument.


Jenny Brown is a National Women’s Liberation organizer and former editor of Labor Notes.
She was a leader in the grassroots campaign to have “morning-after
pill” contraception available over-the-counter in the U.S. and was a
plaintiff in the winning lawsuit. In addition to Labor Notes, her work has appeared in Jacobin, Huffington Post, and Alternet, and she is coauthor of the Redstockings book Women’s Liberation and National Health Care: Confronting the Myth of America. She is the author of Without Apology: The Abortion Struggle Now.

Birth Strike: The Hidden Fight over Women’s Work

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