June 23, 2021
From The Anarchist Library
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PRESENTATION

This dossier was carried out from a nearly two-year survey, which aimed
to analyze the resurgence of anarchism, anarcho-syndicalism and
revolutionary syndicalism, which occurred worldwide between 1990 and
2019.

The research started thanks to an invitation from Marcel van der Linden
— member of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam
(IISG) — who asked me to write a chapter on the topic for his
book Global History of Socialism, which will be published in some time
in two volumes by Cambridge University Press.

I then dedicated myself to this issue, facing enormous challenges: to
understand an immense subject and condensing the results of the research
in a restricted space (and, therefore, prioritizing very well what would
or would not enter the text); to analyze a recent phenomenon, which does
not count on previous studies (with this recent and global approach with
which I worked), large data surveys, and not even texts or books about
it; to search for widely dispersed information in several languages.

Facing this challenge would not have been possible without the studies
and militancy developed over more than two decades, as well as the help
of several men and women, to whom I would like to express my deepest
thanks. I highlight, in particular: the members of the Institute for
Anarchist Theory and History (IATH), both the coordinators and the
associates; volunteers from the “Contemporary Global Anarchism /
Syndicalism” group created on Facebook, who significantly assisted in
data collection; the countless people from Brazil and abroad who
indicated material and / or who answered the dozens of interviews I
conducted. I also thank José Antonio Gutiérrez Danton and Jonathan Payn
for their help with translations and critical comments of my manuscript
and this dossier. 

With this research, I came up with quite interesting results. A summary
of them will be published in the referred to book. The chapter will come
under the title “The Global Revival of Anarchism and Syndicalism
(1990–2019)” and, soon, I will conduct a video course (in Portuguese
)
with the referred results. Obviously, these are limited results, with
enormous possibilities for further study.

In this dossier, I provide some sources of my research, including books,
texts, websites, videos and interviews, in different languages. I also
make some comments to guide the reading. This is not a complete list of
everything that exists, but a set of sources through which I believe it
is possible to understand contemporary anarchism. This will allow not
only a more in-depth knowledge of the topic, but also that other
researchers can use this material for further investigations.

For any corrections or suggestions of important materials on the
subjects discussed, I ask that you write to me
at .

Good reading!

Felipe CorrĂȘa, 2020

1. STUDIES ON “CONTEMPORARY ANARCHISM”

The subject “contemporary anarchism” does not have major studies,
especially when taking into account the historical and global approach
that I believe is the most suitable for research of this type. Most
studies on this topic have been produced by authors from / influenced by
the Global Justice Movement (or “Anti-Globalization Movement”) and some
of its subsequent developments. If, undoubtedly, these studies have
qualities, they do also have countless limits. Among them, mainly the
extremely broad and a-historical definitions of anarchism with which
they work and the (Eurocentric) generalizations made on an extremely
restricted database. Below I highlight some of these studies.

  • David Graeber, “The New Anarchists”, New Left Review, 13 (2002).
    []

  • Andrej Grubacic, “Towards Another Anarchism”, ZNet (2003).
    []

  • Andrej Grubacic and David Graeber, “Anarchism, Or The Revolutionary
    Movement Of The Twenty-first Century”, ZNet (2004).
    []

  • Uri Gordon, Anarchy Alive! Anti-authoritarian Politics from Practice
    to Theory
     (London, 2008).
    []

  • Uri Gordon, “Anarchism Reloaded”, Journal of Political Ideologies,
    12 (2007).
    []

  • TomĂĄs Ibåñez, Anarquismo en Movimiento: anarquismo, neoanarquismo
    y postanarquismo 
    (Buenos Aires, 2014).

Other texts on the subject, which work with different approaches, are:

  • Leonard Williams, “Anarchism Revived”, New Political Science, 29
    (2007).
    []

  • Dana M. Williams, “Contemporary Anarchist and Anarchistic
    Movements”, Sociology Compass, 12 (2018).
    []

From a historical and global perspective, which I understand to be the
most suitable for the study of contemporary anarchism, I indicate some
texts that, in my view, are more interesting on the subject:

  • Lucien van der Walt, “Back to the future: revival, relevance and
    route
    of an anarchist/syndicalist approach for twenty-first-century left,
    labour and national liberation movements”, Journal of
    Contemporary African Studies 
    (2016).
    []

  • Steven Hirsch and Lucien van der Walt, “Final Reflections: the
    vicisitudes of anarchist and syndicalist trajectories, 1940 to the
    present”, Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Postcolonial
    World
    , 1870–1940 (Leiden/Boston, 2010).
    []

  • Felipe CorrĂȘa, “Surgimento e Breve Perspectiva HistĂłrica do
    Anarquismo”, Instituto de Teoria e HistĂłria
    Anarquista 
    (2013).
    [ (in
    Portuguese)]

2. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL REFERENCES

In order to understand contemporary anarchism, as stated, it seems to me
fundamental, first, to adopt a historical and global approach, to break
with the historical studies (subsidized in theoretical / practical
approaches, self-definitions, etymologies etc.) and with the
Eurocentrism (extrapolating the Western Europe and the United States and
significantly expanding the territorial analytical scope). And, second,
working with a precise conceptual definition of anarchism, based on a
global analysis of its 150 years of history. Here are some references to
this approach.

  • Felipe CorrĂȘa, Bandeira Negra: rediscutindo o anarquismo (Curitiba,
    2015).
    [ (in
    Portuguese)] Volunteers to do translation, please get in touch!

  • This content is also presented on video:

  • There are also other videos in Portuguese (Volunteers to do
    subtitles, please get in touch!):

    • Apresentação de “Bandeira Negra”
      []

    • “Anarquismo Redefinido”
      []

    • “Surgimento do Anarquismo, Grandes Debates e Suas Correntes
      []

  • Lucien van der Walt, “Global Anarchism and Syndicalism: theory,
    history, resistance”, Anarchist Studies, 24 (2016).
    []

  • 3. TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTEXT IN QUESTION

    In my view, there are three most relevant contextual elements for
    understanding the period in question:

    1. The crisis of “progressive statism” and the left in general
      (Keynesian welfare state and social democracy, “socialist” and
      Marxism-Leninism bloc; import substitution industrialization and
      anti-imperialist nationalism).

    2. The global expansion of neoliberalism, which, increasingly
      financialized, led to the resumption of profits by the dominant classes,
      dramatically increasing the power of international banks and
      multinationals.

    3. The emergence and strengthening of movements of resistance to
      neoliberalism that, in many cases, even keeping to the left of the
      political spectrum, have adopted a critical vision on statism. Among
      them, the Zapatista Movement, the Global Justice Movement and innovative
      forms of unionism.

    To understand these elements, I indicate below some references that I
    believe are important.

    • Peter Taylor, “The Crisis of the Movements: the enabling state as
      quisling”, Antipode, 23 (1991).
      []

    • Lucien van der Walt, “Self-Managed Class-Struggle Alternatives to
      Neo-liberalism, Nationalisation, Elections”, Global Labour Column,
      213 (2015).
      []

    • Lucien van der Walt, “Back to the Future: revival, relevance and
      route of an anarchist/syndicalist approach for twenty-first century
      left, labour and national liberation movements”, Journal of
      Contemporary African Studies
      , 34 (2016).
      [] 

    • Noam Chomsky, Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and Global
      Order
       (New York, 1999).
      []

    • Michel Chossudovsky, Globalization of Poverty and the New World
      Order
       (Montreal/Quebec, 2003).
      []

    • David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (Oxford, 2005).

    • Ladislau Dowbor, The Age of Unproductive Capital: New
      architectures of power 
      (Newcastle, 2019).

    • JosĂ© Arbex Jr., Revolução em TrĂȘs Tempos: URSS, Alemanha,
      China
       (SĂŁo Paulo, 1999).

    • Mark Bray, ANTIFA: The anti-fascist handbook (New York/London,
      2017).
      []

    • Charles Tilly and Lesley Wood, Social Movements,
      1768–2008
       (Boulder/London, 2009).

    • EjĂ©rcito Zapatista de LiberaciĂłn Nacional (EZLN), Ya Basta! Ten
      years of the Zapatista Uprising
       (Oakland, 2004).

    • Uri Gordon, Anarchy Alive! Anti-authoritarian Politics from Practice
      to Theory
       (London, 2008).
      []

    • Immanuel Ness (ed), New Forms of Worker Organization: The
      syndicalist and autonomist restoration of class-struggle
      unionism
       (Oakland, 2014).
      []

    It is worth mentioning that, in order to properly understand the
    contemporary resurgence of anarchism, it is necessary to unite the
    structural and conjunctural elements with the action of anarchists,
    anarcho-syndicalists and revolutionary syndicalists, who played a
    central role in this resurgence. In the following lines, many of these
    initiatives will be mentioned.

    4. GEOGRAPHIC PRESENCE

    After analyzing the presence and influence of anarchism,
    anarcho-syndicalism and revolutionary unionism in the different
    countries of the world between 1990 and 2019, I arrived at the results
    that I incorporated in the map below.

    f-c-felipe-correa-dossier-on-contemporary-anarchis-1.jpg

    Map: “Global Anarchist/Syndicalist Presence and Impact (1990–2019)”.

    On this map you can see all the countries in which I found the presence
    of anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary syndicalist
    expressions. They are, by region: North America: United States and
    Canada. Central America and the Caribbean: Mexico, Cuba and Costa
    Rica. South America: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia,
    Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and French Guiana. Nordic
    Europe:
     Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. Western
    Europe:
     France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Ireland, United Kingdom,
    Austria, Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland and
    Iceland. Eastern Europe: Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria,
    Czech Republic, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and
    Slovakia. Middle East and Central Asia: Syria, Israel and Palestine,
    Turkey, Lebanon, Iran and Iraq. Far East: Japan, South Korea and
    China. Southeast and South Asia: Indonesia, Bangladesh, Afghanistan,
    India, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and East Timor. North
    Africa:
     Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria. Sub-Saharan Africa: South
    Africa, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Zambia and
    Uganda. Oceania: Australia and New Zealand.

    I was also able to notice the impact of these expressions, which was
    measured from a set of variables: size, constancy, political and social
    influence, level of national diffusion, theoretical elaborations and
    practical achievements.

    However, it is important to keep in mind that, even in the places of
    greatest presence and influence, in general terms, anarchism,
    anarcho-syndicalism and revolutionary syndicalism were, in comparison to
    other sectors of the left, and even with other revolutionary sectors, a
    minority force. A growing, relevant force, which has become better
    known, respected and significantly intervenes in the global reality; but
    still, a minority force.

    5. SIGNIFICANT CURRENTS AND EXPRESSIONS

    During the period in question, the way of acting of anarchists,
    anarcho-syndicalists and revolutionary syndicalists, as well as the
    positions they adopted in the face of the great debates carried out,
    allow us to speak of six major currents and expressions, which are
    listed below: 1.) Syndicalist mass organizations; 2.) Flexible anarchist
    organizations (“synthesists”); 3.) Program-based anarchist organizations
    (“platformists” / “especifistas”); 4.) Insurrectionary groups and
    individuals; 5.) Diverse collectives; 6.) Anti-authoritarians and
    libertarians in general.

    I present here some characteristics of these currents and expressions,
    their main networks and international organizations, and I indicate some
    documents produced within these currents and expressions for a deepening
    of their conceptions.

    (It is worth noting that it is not possible to
    compare the absolute number of members of the currents (the result of
    surveys that I made during the research) without taking into account the
    type of organization in question and their criteria for entry and
    participation. For example, a syndicalist organization and a “specific”
    anarchist organization, each with 300 members, can have very different
    impacts in reality. In addition, it is also very important to note that
    most anarchists in the world are not organized, so that the total number
    of anarchists in the world far exceeds the numbers mentioned below.)

    5.1 SYNDICALIST MASS ORGANIZATIONS

    Characterization: Anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary syndicalist
    organizations that intend to be mass organizations. They are mainly
    linked to the field of work, intending to articulate workers on an
    economic basis to conduct struggles for immediate gains as well as the
    revolutionary struggle. Their members do not necessarily have to
    identify with anarchism, which, depending on the case, can be more or
    less promoted by the organization itself. They use consensus and voting
    (in different modalities) to make decisions and articulate themselves in
    multi-trade unions, as industrial unions or as groups within bigger
    unions.

    Historical references: Mainly the International Workers’ Association
    of 1922/3 (or “Syndicalist International”).

    International representations:

    • International Workers’ Association (IWA-AIT). Historically, it is
      the most important organization in this camp; founded in 1922/3 and
      going through a crisis with World War II, it has grown again since
      the 1970s. However, with a huge split in 2016 (which meant the loss
      of 80% or 90% of its membership base), it decreased its strength a
      lot. In 2019 it had around 1,000 members, divided into 13 national
      organizations and 6 “friends” organizations, mainly in Europe and
      Oceania, and with more modest articulations in the Americas and Asia.
      []

      • Some members (2019): Solidarity Federation (SF, England)
        [], Zwiazek SyndykalistĂłw Polski
        [Union of Polish Syndicalists] (ZSP, Poland)
        [] and Anarcho-Syndicalist
        Federation (ASF, Australia) [].

    • Red and Black Coordination (RBC). It was articulated in the years
      2010, bringing together dissident and / or non-IWA-AIT organizations.
      In 2019, it brought together seven trade union organizations from
      Europe, with about 100,000 members (most of them from the Spanish
      CGT). []

      • Some members (2019): ConfederaciĂłn General de Trabajadores (CGT,
        Spain) [], National Confederation of Labor
        (CNT-F, France) [] and Eleftheriaki
        Sindikalistiki Enosi [Union of Libertarian Syndicalists] (ESE,
        Greece) [].

    • International Confederation of Labour (ICL-CIT). Founded in 2018
      by organizations that split with IWA-AIT and articulated with others
      from RBC. In 2019, it had around 10,000 members, divided into seven
      organizations, mainly from Europe, North America and, to a lesser
      extent, South America. []

      • Some members (2019): National Confederation of Labor (CNT, Spain)
        [], Italian Syndicalist
        Union (USI, Italy)
        [] and The Free
        Workers’ Union (FAU, Germany)
        [].

    • International Labour Network of Solidarity and Struggles (ILNSS).
      It was founded in 2013, as a broader articulation proposal. It brings
      together both revolutionary and anarcho-syndicalist organizations,
      while others, which, even in the camp of class struggle and combative
      unionism, do not work with self-management and federalist practices,
      nor independence from political parties.
      []

      • Some members (2019): National Confederation of Labor — SolidaritĂ©
        OuvriĂšre (CNT-SO, France) [], Union
        Syndicale Solidaires (Solidaires, França)
        [] and Intercategorial Union COBAS (SI
        COBAS, Italy) [].

    To better understand its conceptions:

    • International Workers’ Association (IWA-AIT), “The Statutes of
      Revolutionary Unionism (IWA)” (2020).
      []

    • International Confederation of Labour (ICL-CIT), “Statutes of the
      International Confederation of Labour” (2018).
      []

    5.2 FLEXIBLE SPECIFIC ORGANIZATIONS (“SYNTHESISTS”)

    Characterization: Specific anarchist organizations (that is, their
    members identify themselves as anarchists) dedicated to different types
    of work, in particular propaganda, but also participating in social
    struggles. They are heterogeneous and allow a plurality of ideas and
    trends, as well as a diversity of conceptions of anarchism, theories,
    strategies and tactics, so that its groups and members have full
    autonomy (including whether or not to accept congressional and other
    instances’ deliberations).

    Historical references: In addition to the classics in general
    (Mikhail Bakunin, Piotr Kropotkin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon), initiatives
    such as the Anti-Authoritarian International of 1872, the Bologna
    Congress of 1920, and the contributions of Errico Malatesta, SĂ©bastien
    Faure and Volin.

    International representations:

    • International of Anarchist Federations (IAF). Founded in 1968, it
      has a relevant role from the 1990s onwards, arriving in 2019 with
      nine national organizations possibly adding 2,000 members. It focuses
      almost exclusively on Europe and has a modest presence in Latin
      America. []

      • Some members (2019): Italian Anarchist Federation (FAI, Italy)
        [], Anarchist Federation
        (FAF, France) [], Iberian
        Anarchist Federation (FAI, Spain)
        [] and
        Argentinian Libertarian Federation (FLA, Argentina)
        [].

    To better understand its conceptions:

    • FĂ©dĂ©ration Anarchiste [Francophone] (FAF), “Principes de Base / Pacte
      Associatif de la FĂ©dĂ©ration Anarchiste” (2016).
      []

    • Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI), “Patto Associativo della
      Federazione Anarchica Italiana – F.A.I.” (s/d).
      []

    5.3 PROGRAM-BASED SPECIFIC ORGANIZATIONS (“PLATFORMISTS” /
    “ESPECIFISTAS”)

    Characterization: Specific anarchist organizations
    dedicated to building and participating in mass movements (union,
    community, student, etc.) and propaganda. They are homogenous and work
    with the organization on two levels (anarchist and mass) and, at the
    anarchist level, defend theoretical unity, tactical, strategic,
    programmatic unity and collective responsibility. They have common
    lines, mandatory for their groups, nuclei and members. They seek
    consensus, but, if impossible, they work with different forms of voting.

    Historical references: Bakunin and the Alliance, the
    first anarchist political organization in history; Dielo Trouda and the
    1926 “Organizational Platform”, classics like Malatesta, Luigi Fabbri,
    Kropotkin and others.

    International representations:

    • Anarkismo.net Network. Multilingual internet portal created in
      2005, which brought together organizations mainly from Europe and
      South America (with more modest presence in Southern Africa and
      Oceania). In 2019, it brought together 14 organizations adding up to
      possibly 1,000 members.

      • Some members (2019): Alternative Libertaire (AL), today Union
        Communiste Libertaire (UCL, France)
        []; Federation of
        Anarchist Communists (FdCA), today Alternativa LibertĂĄria (AL,
        Italy) []; Workers’
        Solidarity Movement (WSM, Ireland) [];
        Uruguayan Anarchist Federation (FAU, Uruguay)
        []; Brazilian Anarchist
        Coordination (CAB, Brazil) [] and
        Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Front (ZACF, South Africa)
        [].

    To better understand its conceptions:

    • FederaciĂłn Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU), “DeclaraciĂłn de Principios de
      FAU” (1993).
      []

    • Zabalaza Communist Anarchist Front (ZACF), “Constitution of the ZACF”
      (2013).
      []

    • Federazione dei Comunisti Anarchici (FdCA), “The Political
      Organization” (1985).
      []

    5.4 INSURRECTIONARY GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS

    Characterization: Individuals, affinity groups and informal
    associations critical of mass and specific structured organizations, and
    who see violent actions (based on the notion of constant, permanent
    attack, and the refusal of any waiting, mediation or commitment) as
    possible triggers to generate immediate insurrections and revolutionary
    movements. They have no formal decision-making bodies and often talk
    without knowing each other; they have complete autonomy to promote their
    goals.

    Historical references: More fluid than the others, they are linked
    to the classic contributions of anarchists like Luigi Galleani,
    Ravachol, Severino Di Giovanni and others — generally associated with
    the notion of “propaganda by the deed”, anarchist illegalism and the
    Black International of 1881 –, and also to most recent contributions
    (Alfredo Bonanno, for example).

    International representations:

    • Informal Anarchist Federation / International Revolutionary Front
      (IAF/IRF).
       Informal network focused on the Mediterranean region
      (mainly Greece and Italy) that has developed since 2002/3. In 2011,
      it brought together several groups, not only in the region in
      question, but also in other European and Latin American countries. As
      they often operate clandestinely, it is more difficult to estimate
      their dimensions, but it is possible to say that those with some
      articulation are probably less numerous than flexible and
      program-based organizations.

      • Some members (2011): Conspiracy of Cells of Fire (CCF, Greece),
        Cooperativa Artigiana
 (Italy), Brigada 20 de julho (Italy).

    To better understand its conceptions:

    • Federazione Anarchica Informale (FAI), “Premier CommuniquĂ© de la
      FAI”, Agence de Presse Associative, APA (2004).
      []

    • Killing King Abacus (KKA), Some Notes on Insurrectionary
      Anarchism
       (Santa Cruz, 2006).
      []

    • Do or Die, “Insurrectionary Anarchy!”, Do or Die, 10 (2003).
      []

    5.5 DIVERSE COLLECTIVES

    Characterization: Groups (political collectives,
    propaganda groups, urban squats, social centers, infoshops, publishers,
    newspapers, libraries, research groups, cooperatives, communities etc.)
    that, in some cases, are composed exclusively of anarchists and, in
    others, also bring together militants from other anti-authoritarian
    currents. They are present in all regions that have an anarchist
    presence; depending on the case, they are local, regional or even
    national references. There are many hundreds, probably thousands around
    the world.

    Historical references: Varied, ranging from classic and
    contemporary anarchism, to the theoretical and practical contributions
    of other libertarian currents.

    5.6 ANTI-AUTHORITARIANS AND LIBERTARIANS IN GENERAL

    Characterization: Movements, groups and individuals that can be
    called anti-authoritarian or libertarian in the broad sense. As with the
    collectives, they may be more or less close to anarchism, may or may not
    have participation by anarchists and be linked to the conceptions of
    libertarian Marxism, autonomism, certain indigenisms, religious
    expressions etc.

    6. SIGNIFICANT DEBATES

    These currents and expressions have to do with the responses to various
    questions at the heart of the anarchist/syndicalist debates. Some of
    these questions will be presented in the following paragraphs.

    • Do you believe it necessary to organize with others? If yes, do you
      agree to organize with non-anarchists? If this is the case, how is
      this relationship?

    • In the case of organization, how to organize? Mass or specific
      organizations? Or informal “organizations”? When it comes to mass
      organizations, how do labor and community relate?

    • Do you accept the national labor legislation? Do you participate in
      the election of union committees or representatives, in those
      countries where these forms of representation exist? Do you accept
      resources from the state directly or indirectly? Do you agree with
      participating in reformist or non-anarchist unions or social
      movements?

    • In the case of specific organizations, do you adopt a flexible
      (heterogeneous) or program-based (homogeneous) model? Which is the
      level of autonomy and unity allowed or expected from militants and
      groups?

    • Which is the main area of activity? To build and participate in mass
      movements, propaganda and education, armed attacks, etc.?

    • What is the understanding of struggle? Permanent attack or an
      understanding of the conditions to go forward or to back up as
      determined by historical conditions?

    • How does decision-making work? Do you accept voting?

    • Do the militants and groups know each other?

    • Do you accept to delegate? If you do, on what grounds?

    • Do you accept to struggle for short-term reforms? If you do, in what
      cases? Do you articulate a minimum program to the maximum program? Do
      you accept negotiations, conciliation or mediation in struggles? Do
      you care about public opinion?

    • How do you understand the relationship between revolutionary violence
      and mass movements and struggles?

    • How do you gravitate towards principlism (complete political
      rigidity, because “reality is imperfect”) or pragmatism (everything
      goes in order to intervene in reality, even to betray one’s own
      principles)? What initiatives are you participating in and what type
      of alliances are you looking for?

    7. IMPORTANT ACHIEVEMENTS AND RELEVANT EPISODES

    Below is a list of important achievements and relevant episodes in which
    anarchists, anarcho-syndicalists and revolutionary syndicalists were
    involved, with more or less presence / impact, depending on the case.
    Achievements are exposed by continents and themes; I indicate throughout
    the text bibliography and sources for further study.

    7.1 TRANSNATIONAL EFFORTS

    7.1.1 SYNDICALIST NETWORKS, ORGANIZATIONS AND GATHERINGS

    Here, it is worth mentioning the important experiences already
    mentioned: International Workers’ Association (IWA-AIT), Red and Black
    Coordination (RBC), International Confederation of Labour (ICL-CIT) and
    International Labour Network of Solidarity and Struggles (ILNSS)
    . Some
    sources to deepen the knowledge of these networks and organizations — as
    well as the split of IWA-AIT, the formation of RBC and ICL-CIT — are, in
    addition to the websites already mentioned:

    • Vadim Damier, Anarcho-Syndicalism in the 20th Century
      (
      Edmonton, 2009).
      []

    • Laure Akai, “Why do We Need a Third International?”, The Anarchist
      Library
       (2016).
      []

    • ConfederaciĂłn Nacional del Trabajo – Secretaria de Exteriores
      (CNT-SE), “Beyond the IWA: an interview with the CNT’s International
      Secretary (2 parts)” (2017).
      []

    • Rabioso, “The CNT and the IWA (2 parts)” (2016).
      []
      []

    • Website: Lifelong Wobbly. []

    In addition, there is the prominent case of Industrial Workers of the
    World (IWW)
     which, at least before joining ICL-CIT, developed during
    the period in question as an international network. Between 1990 and
    2019, in addition to its most prominent presence in the United States
    and Canada, it had a less significant existence in: Great Britain,
    Germany, Finland, Iceland, Russia, Poland, Sierra Leone, Uganda,
    Australia and New Zealand. []  The most
    interesting historiographic framework that addresses the period studied
    is as follows.

    • Fred Thompson and Jon Bekken, The Industrial Workers of the World:
      It’s First 100 Years
       (Cincinnati, 2006).

    In addition, from an international perspective, another highlight was
    the International Syndicalist Gatherings, with the participation of
    several organizations of this current to discuss the international
    situation and encourage internationalism. Such meetings were held in the
    United States in 1999 (i99), in Germany in 2002 (i02) and in France in
    2007 (i07). This last meeting, convened by CNT-F (Vignoles), brought
    together dozens of centrals and unions from around the world; African
    unions were those which participated in the largest number. About the
    i07, there are some interesting references on the internet.

    7.1.2 ANARCHIST NETWORKS, ORGANIZATIONS AND GATHERINGS

    It is also worth emphasizing the outstanding experiences
    mentioned: International of Anarchist Federations
    (IAF)
    Anarkismo.net Network and Informal Anarchist
    Federation / International Revolutionary Front (IAF/IRF)
    . Below, I
    indicate some sources to deepen the knowledge of these networks and
    organizations.

    IAF AND FLEXIBLE ORGANIZATIONS (SYNTHESISTS)

    • IFA, Histoire de l’Internationale des FĂ©dĂ©rations
      Anarchistes
       (IFA), 3 vol. (no date).

    • IFA, IFA: The Magazine of the International of Anarchist
      Federations
      , 1 (2018?).
      []

    • IFA, Anarkiista Debato: Magazine of IAF (2006?).
      []

    • FĂ©dĂ©ration Anarchiste [Francophone] (FAF), “Pour un Anarchisme du
      XXIe Siùcle” (no date).
      []

    ANARKISMO.NET AND PROGRAM-BASED ORGANIZATIONS
    (“PLATFORMISTS”/”ESPECIFISTAS”)

    • Felipe CorrĂȘa, “Sobre Anarkismo.net: entrevista a Jose Antonio
      Gutierrez Danton, uno de los fundadores” (2020).
      []

    • Anarchism and the Platformist Tradition, “Recent Writtings”.
      []

    • Anarchism and the Platformist Tradition, “The Global Influence of
      Platformism Today: Interviews”.
      []

    • Anarchism and the Platformist Tradition, “Especifismo Anarquista”.
      []

    INFORMAL ANARCHIST FEDERATION / INTERNATIONAL REVOLUTIONARY FRONT AND
    INSURRECTIONALIST INITIATIVES

    • Act for Freedom Now, “Our Lives of Burning Vision” (2011).
      []

    • Conspiracy of Cells of Fire (CCF), “Mapping the Fire: International
      Words of Solidarity with the Conspiracy of Cells of Fire” (2012).
      []

      • Alfredo Cospito (Conspiracy of Cells of Fire), “‘A Few Words of
        “Freedom’: Interview by CCF – Imprisoned Members Cell with Alfredo
        Cospito’, The Anarchist Library (2014).
        []

    • Federazione Anarchica Informale (FAI), “Quattro Anni
 Documento
      Incontro FAI a 4 Anni dalla Nascita”, Sebben che siamo
      donne
       (2006).
      []

    • Federazione Anarchica Informale / Fronte Rivoluzionario
      Internazionale (FAI/FRI), “Non Dite che Siamo
      Pochi”, Informa-Azione (2011).
      []

    • Act for Freedom Now, “Revolutionary Struggle: a Collection of
      Letters, Texts and Communiques from an Armed Groupe in Greece and
      Their Accused” (2011?).
      []

    In addition to meetings and congresses of the networks and organizations
    in question, on different occasions there were other International
    Anarchist Gatherings
    , more or less global depending on the context,
    with theoretical and practical purposes. Examples are the International
    Libertarian Gathering in Spain (1995), or the gathering of the
    Anti-Authoritarian Insurrectionary International (Italy, 2000), the
    Anarchists Encounters (Brazil, 2002), the International
    Anarcha-Femminist Conference (England, 2014), and the Mediterranean
    Anarchist Gathering (Tunis, 2015). In 2012, the International Anarchist
    Gathering in Switzerland, which took place in St Imier, brought together
    thousands of people from all over the world for five days of activities.

    • “Internationale Antiautoritaire Insurrectionaliste – PremiĂšre
      rencontre” (2000).
      []

    • FederaciĂłn Anarquista Uruguaya, “DeclaraciĂłn final de las Jornadas
      Anarquistas de Porto Alegre en el 2002” (2002).
      []

    • Anarcha-Feminist Conference (AFem2014).
      []

      • Romina Akemi and Bree Busk, “Breaking the Waves: Challenging the
        Liberal Tendency within Anarchist Feminism”, Institute for
        Anarchist Studies
         (2016).
        []

    • Le Commun Libertaire, Internacional de FederaçÔes Anarquistas e
      Federação Anarquista Francesa, “Tunisie, Appel à une Premiùre
      Rencontre Anarchiste MĂ©diterranĂ©enne! Mars 2015” (2014).
      []

    • Le Monde Libertaire (ed), Saint Imier 1872–2012: Rencontres
      Internationales Anarchistes
.
       Le Monde Libertaire Hors-sĂ©rie n° 46
      (2012).

    7.1.3 ZAPATISMO, GLOBAL JUSTICE MOVEMENT AND INDYMEDIA

    As I mentioned, major anti-authoritarian and libertarian movements were
    formed between 1990 and 2019. The most influential of them is the armed
    indigenous movement of Mexico — the Zapatista Movement –, led by the
    Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN). This movement became public
    in 1994 in the fight against neoliberalism and was raised to the status
    of a world reference in this fight. At the same time, it developed a
    very interesting practice in the collective administration of 55
    municipalities in the Chiapas region, where 300,000 people live. Even
    though it was not an anarchist movement, Zapatismo had a great influence
    on anarchists. There were, very marginally, contributions by anarchists,
    anarcho-syndicalists and revolutionary syndicalists, both from Mexico
    (Self-Managing Libertarian Unity and the Love and Rage Revolutionary
    Anarchist Federation) and other countries (Spanish General Confederation
    of Labor, for instance) to their experience. Here are some references to
    the Zapatista movement below. Regarding the participation of anarchists,
    all I got was in interviews that will not be published.

    • EjĂ©rcito Zapatista de LiberaciĂłn Nacional (EZLN), Ya Basta! Ten
      years of the Zapatista Uprising 
      (Oakland, 2004).

    • Enlace Zapatista. []

    • Emilio Gennari, â€œEZLN: passos de uma rebeldia”, Pegada, 5 (2004).
      []

    Zapatistas were among the signatories who, in 1998, founded Peoples’
    Global Action (PGA), a network of social movements that spearheaded
    the Global Justice Movement and coordinated the Global Action Days
    against neoliberalism. Another influential movement of this wave,
    proposed to be a global instrument for communication and coordination of
    those who fight against the destruction of humanity and the environment
    by capitalist globalization, and who build local alternatives and
    popular powers. Massive global mobilizations took place from 1999
    onwards, the one in Seattle, in November that year, giving global
    visibility to the movement, which kept its momentum until 2002.
    Notwithstanding the fact that the bulk of the mobilizations took place
    in the US and Europe, there were considerable actions on other
    continents, and anarchists were very influential.

    • Peoples’ Global Action (PGA), “PGA Bulletin, num. 0”, Archive of
      Global Protests
       (1997).
      []

    • Bruno Fiuza e MĂĄrcio Bustamante, “Uma HistĂłria Oral da Ação Global
      dos Povos: pesquisa ativista a serviço das lutas sociais”, Anais do
      XIV Encontro Nacional de HistĂłria Oral
       (2018).
      []

    • Ned Ludd, UrgĂȘncia das Ruas: Black Bloc, Reclaim the Streets e os
      Dias de Ação Global
       (SĂŁo Paulo, 2002).
      []

    • Barbara Epstein, “Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization
      Movement”, Montly Review, 53 (2001).
      []

    • Uri Gordon, Anarchy Alive! Anti-authoritarian Politics from Practice
      to Theory
       (London, 2008).
      []

    • Ross Wolfe, “The movement as an end-in-itself? An interview with
      David Graeber”, Platypus Review, 43 (2012).
      []

    As a global communication network linked to the “Anti-Globalization
    Movement”, and also with an important contribution from anarchists, in
    1999 the Independent Media Center (Indymedia) appeared. Among other
    projects, it managed sites worldwide (in 2002, there were 90; in 2006,
    there were 150); its open access policy, the possibility of leaving
    comments by readers and the various technological tools developed before
    social media, not only broke with the hegemonic discourse of the
    mainstream media, giving voice to peoples’ movements, but it was also
    innovative, leading the way for the developments of later years
    technology-wise.

    • Eva Giraud, “Has Radical Participatory Online Media Really ‘Failed’?
      Indymedia and its legacies”, Convergence: The International Journal
      of Research into New Media Technologies
      , 20 (2014).
      []

    • Dorothy Kidd, “Indimedia.org: a New Communication Commons”, M.
      McCaughey and M. Ayers, Cyberactivism: Online Activism in Theory and
      Practice
       (New York / London, 2003).
      []

    • Adilson Cabral, “As Comunidades de Compartilhamento Social no Centro
      de MĂ­dia Independente”, Intercom, 31 (2008).
      []

    7.1.4 ANTIFA, ANARCHIST BLACK CROSS AND BLACK BLOC

    During this period, hundreds (perhaps a few thousand) of collectives
    were also formed, which often built transnational articulations, forming
    networks or even maintaining contact and influencing each other.

    Among the most expressive cases are the various Antifa collectives
    around the world, some specifically anarchists, others of a broader
    composition. The growing internationalization of the Antifa militant
    model was central in the years in question, with the determining role of
    anarchists.

    • M. Testa, Militant Antifascism: a hundred years
      of resistance
       (Oakland, 2015).
      []

    • Mark Bray, ANTIFA: The anti-fascist handbook (New York/London,
      2017).
      []

    There are also the numerous groups of the Anarchist Black Cross
    (ABC)
    , whose focus was directed at the work of supporting political
    prisoners. With an abolitionist perspective, they communicated with
    prisoners, visited them, provided political literature, raised funds and
    organized solidarity events.

    • Matthew Hart, “Yalensky’s Fable: A History of the Anarchist Black
      Cross”, The Anarchist Library (2003).
      []

    • Anarchist Black Cross (ABC), “Starting an Anarchist Black Cross
      Group: A guide”, The Anarchist Library (2018).
      []

    • A Las Barricadas, “’No debemos limitar JAMÁS nuestra lucha a las
      cuestiones legales’: Entrevista sobre la Cruz Negra Anarquista
      Latinoamerica”, A Las Barricadas (2008).
      []

    It is also worth mentioning the so-called Black Bloc, an action
    tactic used in street demonstrations, which has as its core the use of a
    common visual identity (masks and black clothes) and combative forms of
    protest, which include destruction of properties and fighting against
    police. It originated in Europe in the 1980s, spread transnationally in
    the wake of the global justice movement throughout the 1990s and 2000s,
    and could be noticed in locations as diverse as Brazil and Egypt in
    2013. Anarchists were not the only ones to participate, but they were
    certainly central to this whole process.

    • Francis Dupuis-DĂ©ri. Who’s Afraid of the Black Blocs?: Anarchy in
      Action around the World 
      (Oakland, 2014).

    • David Van Deusen and Xavier Massot (eds), The Black Bloc Papers:
      An Anthology of Primary Texts From The North American Anarchist Black
      Bloc, 1988–2005 
      (Shawnee Mission, 2010).
      []

    • Francis Dupuis-DĂ©ri, “Black Blocs: abaixo Ă s mĂĄscaras!”, Verve, 30
      (2016).
      []

    7.1.5 RESEARCH AND URBAN SUBCULTURES

    At the same time, there were transnational initiatives in the academic
    and research fields, through the establishment of networks and
    institutes such as North American Anarchist Studies
    Network (NAASN)
     [], Anarchist Studies
    Network (ASN)
     [] and
    the Institute for Anarchist Theory and History
    (ITHA-IATH)
     [].

    There were also subcultural experiences, linked to punk
    (anarcho-punk mostly) that, in different countries, were critical to
    anarchism’s growth and, to a lesser degree, others linked to alternative
    rock, hardcore, straight edge, skinhead, hip-hop and organized ultras.

    • CrimethInc, “Music as a Weapon: The Contentious Symbiosis of Punk
      Rock and Anarchism”, CrimethInc (2018).
      []

    • Jim Donaghey, “Bakunin Brand Vodka: An Exploration into
      Anarchist-punk and Punk-anarchism”, Anarchist Developments in
      Cultural Studies
      , 1 (2013).
      []

    • Jim Donaghey, Punk and Anarchism: UK, Poland,
      Indonesia 
      (Loughborough, 2016).
      []

    • Eduardo Ribeiro, Uma HistĂłria Oral do Movimento Anarcopunk em SĂŁo
      Paulo
      , 1988–2001 (Rio de Janeiro, 2019). [For an overview available
      online, see: “Anarcopunk SP — uma jornada de criatividade,
      resistĂȘncia e luta” (2019).]
      []

    7.2 WESTERN AND NORDIC EUROPE

    7.2.1 THE FORCE OF SYNDICALIST ORGANIZATIONS IN SPAIN AND SWEDEN

    In Western and Nordic Europe, there are two other cases that stand out
    for their national dimensions. First, the General Confederation of
    Labor (CGT)
     in Spain. It is the largest revolutionary syndicalist
    organization in the world and the third largest central in Spain. In
    2004, it had 60,000 members, more than 5,000 union delegates and
    represented more than 2 million Spanish workers. In the private sector,
    its greatest representation was found in bank workers, metallurgists,
    telecommunications and cleaning workers; in the public sector, it was on
    the railroad workers, postal workers, territorial collectives and
    regional televisions. After that, it continued to grow, reaching an
    impressive 100,000 members today; in addition to the sectors in
    question, it expanded its presence among telemarketing workers and
    precarious immigrants. In 2001, CGT articulated the Libertarian
    International Solidarity (SIL), with European and Latin American
    anarchist and syndicalist organizations.

    • ConfederaciĂłn General del Trabajo (CGT), 25 Aniversario del Congreso
      de Unificación, 1984–2009
       (2009).
      []

    • C.J., “Espagne: La CGT s’affirme comme la troisiĂšme organization
      syndicale”, Alternative Libertaire, 134 (2004).
      []

    • JosĂ© Manuel Muñoz PĂłliz (CGT), “Entrevista: ‘La clase trabajadora es
      la que estĂĄ haciendo los esfuerzos una vez
      mĂĄs’”, Cuartopoder.es (2020).
      []

    • Wikiwand, “ConfederaciĂłn General del Trabajo”
      (España)[]

    • Lucha Libertaria, “Jornadas Libertarias [y SIL]” (2001).
      []

    • CGT Website: 

    Second, the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC), which,
    despite decreasing in terms of members (from around 7,000 in 2001 to
    3,000 in 2016), in proportion to the population of Sweden, is still the
    second largest European revolutionary syndicalist organization. In
    addition to the more traditional union struggles and campaigns, they
    articulated undocumented workers, fair trade campaigns, clandestine
    railroad organization, youth mobilization.

    • Gabriel Kuhn, “Syndicalism in Sweden: A hundred years of the
      SAC”, Immanuel Ness (ed), New Forms of Worker Organization: The
      syndicalist and autonomist restoration of class-struggle
      unionism
       (Oakland, 2014).
      []

    • SAC Website: 

    It is also worth remembering that individuals and groups with an
    anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary syndicalist perspective
    also participated in broader unions: an interesting case is that of the
    Italians, who contributed to the construction of COBAS (Confederation of
    Base Committees), born in 1999 and organized in four federations,
    representing hundreds of thousands of workers.

    7.2.2 MOBILIZATIONS AND STRIKES AGAINST IMPERIALISM, NEOLIBERALISM AND
    WOMEN’S OPPRESSION IN THE SPAIN-FRANCE-ITALY TRIANGLE

    In the years analyzed, important mobilizations took place in the
    Spain-France-Italy triangle, with the presence of organizations from
    these countries. In addition to those linked to the “Anti-Globalization”
    Movement, there were major processes of struggle and strikes. Noteworthy
    are those that opposed American imperialism: in Italy, the numerous
    protests in the 1990s and 2000s against the installation of US military
    bases on their own soil, and the 1991 strike against the Gulf War; in
    Spain, a general strike in 2003 against participation in the Iraq War.

    Also those that aimed to combat the effects of neoliberal austerity
    measures, with their effects of loss of rights, precarious work,
    increased living costs. In Spain, worth mentioning are: a strike in 1994
    against precariousness, the Movimiento de los Indignados (15M), in 2011,
    which summarized the dissatisfaction of Spanish society with this
    socioeconomic context and contemporary forms of political
    representation; the mobilizations and women’s strike in 2018 (8M) put
    feminism and the gender issue on the agenda.

    In France, it is worth pointing out mobilizations and strikes: in 1995,
    against pension reforms; 2006 and 2009–2010, against labor easing
    measures, precariousness and loss of rights — with protests with a few
    million people on the streets; in 2018–2019, against the increase in
    fuel, cost of living and austerity measures (Yellow Vests) and also
    against the loss of social security rights.

    Anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary syndicalist organizations
    participated in these episodes, and were more or less influential
    depending on the context. Anti-authoritarians / libertarians, countless
    collectives, insurrectionist individuals and groups and specific
    anarchist organizations also participated.

    Italy:

    • Alice Poma and Tommaso Gravante, “Beyond the State and Capitalism:
      The Current Anarchist Movement in Italy”, Journal for the Study of
      Radicalism
      , 11 (2017).
      []

    • Kollettivo Antimilitarista Anarchico – Pordenone, “27 Giugno 98:
      Giornata Nazionale contro le Basi Militari”, UmanitĂ  Nova, 23
      (1998).
      []

    • Federazione Anarchica Italiana, “Manifestazione contro la guerra e
      contro il militarismo” (2001).
      []

    Spain:

    • ConfederaciĂłn General del Trabajo (CGT), 25 Aniversario del Congreso
      de Unificación, 1984–2009
       (2009).
      []

    • Joselito, “Movimiento 15M”, Anarquismo, anarcosindicalismo y
      otros temas sobre el movimiento libertario 
      (2018).
      []

    • Pablo Elorduy y HĂ©ctor Rojo LetĂłn, “Reportaje sobre el Movimiento
      15-M” (2011).
      []

    • AgĂȘncia de NotĂ­cias Anarquistas (ANA), “JosĂ© Luis GarcĂ­a RĂșa: ‘Acabar
      com o sistema Ă© a solução’” (2011).
      []

    • Alfredo Pascual, “Del 8M a Amazon: CNT y CGT resucitan a costa de los
      dinosaurios sindicales”, El
      Confidencial 
      (2018)[]

    France:

    • Guillaume Davranche, “Ce que DĂ©cembre 95 a changĂ©â€, Alterative
      Libertaire
       (2005).
      []

    • Le Monde Libertaire, “Le CPE Contrat de PrĂ©caritĂ© et d’Esclavage”
      (2006).
      []

    • Daniel Pinos, “Jours de GrĂšve Ă  la Sorbonne Nouvelle”, Le Monde
      Libertaire
       (2006).
      []

    • ConfĂ©dĂ©ration Nationale du Travail – France (CNT-F), “AprĂšs le 19
      mars, soyons responsables : construisons la grùve reconductible!”
      (2009).
      []

    • Alterative Libertaire, “Mouvement social de 2010” (2010).
      []

    • “Recueil de Textes Anarchistes Ă  Propos du Mouvement des Gilets
      Jaunes” (2019).
      []

    • Alternative Libertaire, “Communistes libertaires et gilets jaunes”
      (2018).
      []

    7.2.3 ANARCHIST PROPAGANDA IN FRANCE AND ITALY AND OTHER EUROPEAN
    EXPERIENCES

    Among the flexible organizations, it is worth highlighting the role
    played by the French and Italian Anarchist Federations (FAF and FAI) in
    the field of anarchist propaganda. Between 1990 and 2019, the FAF,
    articulating around a hundred federated groups, published more than a
    thousand editions of its newspaper Le Monde
    Libertaire
     [], maintained daily
    radio programs (FM and online) Radio Libertaire
    [], in addition to the Publico
    bookstore with a public space, in Paris
    [], and the publisher Les Éditions
    du Monde Libertaire []. During
    that same period, FAI published its weekly newspaper UmanitĂ 
    Nova
     [] and several books by Edizioni
    Zero in Condotta [].

    Other notable experiences in Europe were: the newspaper and the
    anarchist federation Class War in England (1983–2011); the Bonaventure
    school in France, which educated children between 1993 and 2001 under
    the principles of libertarian pedagogy; the work of archiving and
    disseminating the libertarian culture of the Anselmo Lorenzo Foundation
    in Spain; anarchist or anarchist-influenced communities, such as
    Spezzano Albanese in Italy and squats in Barcelona.

    • Benjamin Franks and Ruth Kinna, “Contemporary British Anarchism:
      L’anarchisme britannique contemporain”, Lisa (2014).
      []

    • Libcom (ed), “Class War newspaper”.
      []

    • FĂ©dĂ©ration Anarchiste [Francophone] (FAF), Bonaventure, une Ă©cole
      libertaire: Premiers pas d’une rĂ©publique Ă©ducative
       (Paris, 1995).

    • AgĂȘncia de NotĂ­cias Anarquistas (ANA), “Bonaventure, uma escola
      libertária: entrevista com Thyde Rosel” (2002).
      []

    • Anselmo Lorenzo Foundation
      Website: 

    • Libertarian Socialism Wiki, “Spezzano Albanese”.
      []

    • David Rappe e Guillaume Burnod, Spezzano A. â€” Documentary (2002).
      []

    • Natalia LĂłpez e Carlos Garcia, “Anarquismo y OkupaciĂłn” — reportagem
      (sem data). []

    • TelevisiĂłn Nacional de Chile, “Documental Okupacion en Barcelona y
      Alrededores” (1990s).
      []

    7.3 EASTERN EUROPE

    7.3.1 ANARCHO-SYNDICALISM IN RUSSIA AND FINAL CONFLICTS OF THE SOVIET
    UNION

    In Russia, the anarcho-syndicalists of the Confederation of
    Anarcho-syndicalists (KAS), formed in 1989, played an important role in
    the conflicts that involved the end of the Soviet Union. They quickly
    reached hundreds of members, conforming themselves as the largest
    national organization of the non-communist left, but soon went into
    crisis, breaking up. From this process, the Siberian Confederation of
    Labour (SKT) emerged in Siberia, which in the mid-1990s reached a few
    thousand members and had an impact on social struggles in the region.

    • Alex Chis, “Interview: ‘Beginning of the KAS in Russia’ / ‘Russian
      Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists’”, Independent Politics, 5/6
      (1994). []

    • Laure Akai and Mikhail Tsovma, “Russian Anarchism: After the
      Fall”, Anarkismo.net (2005).
      []

    • Andrew Flood, “The Syndicalist SKT Union in Siberia”, Anarchist
      Writters
       (2008).
      []

    7.3.2 THE 2008 RIOTS AND THE MOVEMENT AGAINST AUSTERITY (2010–2012) IN
    GREECE

    It was in Greece that the most important achievements and episodes in
    this region took place. Not only in the intense period from 1989 to
    1995, and in initiatives such as the 2003 Anti-Authoritarian Movement
    (AK) and its newspaper Babylonia, the countless squats and the
    tradition in Exarcheia (considered an anarchist neighborhood), but
    mainly for the episodes of 2008 and 2010–2012.

    The murder of a young anarchist by the police in December 2008 ended up
    acting as a catalyst for a large-scale uprising, which for two weeks had
    daily demonstrations and went on for almost a month in Athens and other
    cities. In the 2008 Uprising, whose main political force was anarchism,
    shops and other properties were destroyed or set on fire. Hundreds of
    schools and universities were occupied and bomb attacks on banks,
    government buildings and several police departments took place. This
    revolt opened a wave of protests against the huge economic, political
    and social crisis, which peaked between 2010 and 2012, with immense
    mobilizations that also had an important participation by anarchists.

    • Nicholas Apoifis, “Fuck May 68, Fight Now!”. Athenian Anarchists &
      Anti-authoritarians: Militant Ethnography & Collective Identity
      Formation
       (2014).
      []

    • A.G. Schwarz, Tasos Sagris and Void Network (eds), We Are an
      Image from the Future: The Greek Revolt of December
      2008 
      (Oakland, 2010).
      []

    • Antonis Vradis and Dimitris Dalakoglou, Revolt and Crisis in
      Greece: Between a Present Yet to Pass and a Future Still to
      Come 
      (Oakland, 2011).
      []

    • Kostis Kornetis, “No More Heroes? Rejection and Reverberation of the
      Past in the 2008 Events in Greece”, Journal of Modern Greek
      Studies
      , 28 (2010).
      []

    • Rosa Vasilaki, “‘We Are an Image From the Future’: Reading back the
      Athens 2008 Riots”, Acta Scientiarum, Education, 39 (2017).
      []

    • AcĂĄcio Augusto, PolĂ­tica e AntipolĂ­tica: anarquia contemporĂąnea,
      revolta e cultura libertĂĄria
       (2013).
      []

    • Wikipedia, “Anti-Austerity Movement in Greece”.
      []

    • Alex King and Ioanna Manoussaki-Adamopoulou, “Inside Exarcheia: the
      self-governing community Athens police want rid of”, The
      Guardian
       (2019).
      []

    7.4 NORTH AMERICA

    7.4.1 â€œSOLIDARITY UNIONISM” AND ANARCHIST PROPAGANDA IN UNITED
    STATES AND CANADA

    When we move to North America, we have the outstanding case of the
    United States, a country that in the years in question had some broader
    organizational experiences. Organizations such as Love and Rage (also
    present in Mexico, “Amor y Rabia”), Workers’ Solidarity Alliance (WSA),
    North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists (NEFAC, also present in
    Canada), Black Rose Anarchist Federation (BRAF ), and hundreds of Food
    Not Bombs collectives with an anarchist presence.

    • Roy San Filippo (ed) A New World in Our Hearts: Eight Years of
      Writtings from the Love and Rage Revolutionary Anarchist
      Federation 
      (Oakland, 2003).
      []

    • Love and Rage Revolutionary Anarchist Federation (LRRAF), “Member
      Handbook” (1997).
      []

    • Workers Solidarity Alliance
      Website: .

    • Anonymous, “The History of NEFAC in Quebec City, 2001–2008” (2009).
      []

    • Penny Howard and Josh Brown, “Interview with Roundhouse Collective of
      NEFAC”, Left Turn (2002).
      []

    • Black Rose Anarchist Federation (BRAF)
      Website: .

    • Chris Crass, “Towards a Non-Violent Society: a position paper on
      anarchism, social change and Food Not Bombs”, The Anarchist
      Library 
      (1995).
      []

    A very interesting case was that of the Industrial Workers of the World
    (IWW), which was dedicated to organizing sectors of workers with little
    interest from the major union actors in the country. With a few thousand
    members in the country, and insertion in several places of work,
    especially in the sectors of commerce and services (recycling, social
    assistance, technology, food etc.) and some broader sectors (education
    and construction, for example), the IWW has been promoting what it calls
    “solidarity unionism”. This is characterized by the construction, by the
    workers, of a vibrant and permanently active union; in the midst of
    campaigns and demands and direct negotiations with bosses, often in
    small stores, they usually seek formal representation, through elections
    conducted by the governmental agency National Labor Relations Board
    (NLRC). Probably the most interesting experiences of the period are in
    restaurants and fast food stores.

    • Fred Thompson and Jon Bekken, The Industrial Workers of the World:
      It’s First 100 Years
       (Cincinnati: 2006)

    • Erik Forman, “Revolt in Fast Food Nation: The Wobblies Take on Jimmy
      John’s”, Immanuel Ness (ed), New Forms of Worker Organization: The
      syndicalist and autonomist restoration of class-struggle
      unionism
       (Oakland, 2014).
      []

    In the field of propaganda, the initiative that seems to have stood out
    the most in these years was that of the collective CrimethInc, which is
    over 20 years old and has spread to other countries. It defines itself
    as a think tank that produces inciting ideas and actions, which poses
    fatal issues for today’s dominations. It has a very complete work in the
    production of books, newspapers, posters, videos, podcasts and presence
    on social networks — with a lot of material that can be reproduced by
    other people. [] In addition to this
    initiative are publishers AK Press [] and PM
    Press [] which, in the period in question,
    published hundreds of books, as well as the magazines Fifth
    Estate
     [] — which, in the three decades
    analyzed, published 62 issues — and Anarchy: A Journal of Desire
    Armed
     [].

    In the academic field, we highlight the Institute for Anarchist Studies
    (IAS), founded in 1996, which publishes the journal Perspectives on
    Anarchist Theory
     and, since its inception, has financed more than 100
    researchers from various parts of the world.
    [] In the technological field, the
    collective Riseup, with anarchist participation, has offered secure
    tools for data storage and communication among militants.
    []

    About North America and Canada in general, some references can be
    mentioned:

    • David Graeber, “The Rebirth of Anarchism in North America
      (1957–2007)”, HAOL, 21 (2010).
      []

    • CrimethInc., “Scene Report: Anarchism in Canada” (2012).
      []

    • Émilie Breton, Sandra Jeppesen, Anna Kruzynski and Rachel Sarrasin,
      “Les fĂ©minismes au coeur de l’anarchisme contemporain au QuĂ©bec: des
      pratiques intersectionnelles sur le terrain”, IntersectionnalitĂ©s,
      28 (2015).
      []

    • Francis Dupuis-DĂ©ri, “Pistes pour une histoire de l’anarchisme au
      QuĂ©bec”, Bulletin d’histoire politique, 16 (2008).
      []

    7.4.2 OCTOBER REBELLION (2007) AND OCCUPY WALL STREET (2011) IN
    UNITED STATES

    However, it should be noted that the anarchist presence in the USA is
    quite significant, and is largely outside these organizations. It showed
    itself very evidently in struggles that, to some extent, continued the
    “anti-globalization” movement, such as the October Rebellion in 2007,
    against the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

    • October Rebellion Website: .

    • CrimethInc, “Notes on the October Rebellion” (2007).
      []

    And also in the so-called Occupy Wall Street, of 2011, which, influenced
    by European mobilizations, concentrated in New York — where hundreds,
    sometimes thousands, of people protested in proposed marches and a group
    remained camped in Zuccotti Park — and spread out across the country,
    and even to others. Under the slogan “We are the 99%”, the movement
    directly questioned social inequality, the deregulation of the financial
    world and the control of capitalist multinationals. Anarchism was the
    movement’s greatest ideological inspiration, as nearly 39% of the
    movement’s organizers defined themselves as anarchists and another 33%
    had essentially anarchist political views, even though they did not call
    themselves such, which means that 72% of the organizers had explicitly
    anarchist or libertarian positions.

    • Mark Bray, Translating Anarchy: The Anarchism of Occupy Wall
      Street 
      (Winchester/Washington, 2013).
      []

    • David Bates, Matthew Ogilvie and Emma Pole, “Occupy: In Theory and
      Practice”, Critical Discourse Studies (2016).
      []

    • David Graeber, “Occupy’s Anarchist Roots”, Al Jazeera (2011).
      []

    • John L. Hammond, “The Anarchism of Occupy Wall Street”, Science &
      Society
      , 79 (2015).
      []

    • AgĂȘncia de NotĂ­cias Anarquistas (ANA), “Erica Lagalisse: Participação
      e influĂȘncias anarquistas no Movimento ‘Occupy Wall Street’” (2011).
      []

    7.5 LATIN AMERICA

    7.5.1 ESPECIFISMO AND ITS DEVELOPMENTS IN URUGUAY, BRAZIL AND
    ARGENTINA

    When discussing Latin America, a case of great prominence is
    so-called especifismo, promoted by the Uruguayan Anarchist Federation
    (FAU). In the years in question, the FAU, which has its own headquarters
    and publisher, developed important works in the fields: union
    (publication, education, teachers, taxi drivers, transport, post office,
    railways and others), community (among which stand out experiences of
    the community centers, such as the historic Ateneu del Cerro, which, in
    addition to fostering organization and territorial struggles, had
    community radio activities), student activities (participating in
    significant struggles, such as school occupations in 1992 and 1996).

    • Anarchism and the Platformist Tradition, “Especifismo Anarquista”.
      []

    • Adam Weaver, “Especifismo: The Anarchist Praxis of Building Popular
      Movements and Revolutionary Organization in South
      America”, Anarchism and the Platformist Tradition (2010).
      []

    • Uruguayan Anarchist Federation Website
      (FAU): .

    Since the 1990s, the FAU has exercized considerable influence in almost
    all South American countries, with an emphasis on Brazil and Argentina.
    In the political field, during this period, it stimulated the emergence
    of different anarchist organizations and their articulation in a Latin
    American Anarchist Coordination (CALA). In Brazil is where the fruits of
    this work developed the most: the foundation of the Gaucha Anarchist
    Federation (FAG), in 1995 — which, during the first half of the 2000s,
    played a relevant role in the National Movement of Waste Pickers (MNCR),
    an initiative that, at the time, organized hundreds of cooperatives and
    tens of thousands of collectors –, and the Brazilian Anarchist
    Coordination (CAB), in 2012, are central milestones. An even less
    significant dissidence of especificismo was formed: the Popular
    Anarchist Union (UNIPA). Argentina was also central to this process,
    through expressions such as Libertarian Socialist Organization (OSL),
    AUCA and Rosario Anarchist Federation (FAR). Other South American
    countries were also influenced, including: Chile, Bolivia, Peru,
    Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.

    Brazil

    • Organização Anarquista Socialismo LibertĂĄrio (OASL) e Federação
      Anarquista do Rio de Janeiro (FARJ) / Coordenação Anarquista
      Brasileira (CAB), “Elementos Para uma Reconstituição Histórica de
      Nossa Corrente”, Anarkismo.net (2012).
      []

    • FederaciĂłn Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU), “Reportaje a un militante de la
      FederaciĂłn Anarquista GaĂșcha (FAG)”, Lucha Libertaria (2004).
      []

    • Brazilian Anarchist Coordination (CAB)
      Website: .

    Argentina

    • En la Calle. En la Calle: una lectura anarquista de la crisis
      neoliberal en Argentina (1997–2007)
      . Buenos Aires: Madreselva, 2012.

    • OrganizaciĂłn Socialista Libertaria (OSL), “Proyecto OSL Argentina –
      Nueva Casa Para los y las Libertarias en
      Argentina”, A-Infos (2005).
      []

    • AUCA, “Que es AUCA, nuestra prĂĄctica y documientos”.
      []

    • Rosario Anarchist Federation (FAR)
      Website: .

    CALA

    In the social field, especifistas from different countries contributed
    directly, from 2003, with the construction of the Latin American
    Encounter of Popular Autonomous Organizations (ELAOPA). As a
    counterpoint to the emergence of progressive governments in Latin
    America and the World Social Forum, ELAOPA articulated, in 13 gatherings
    that took place in different countries, a combative and independent camp
    of social and union movements.

    • Combate Audiovisual, “DocumentĂĄrio VI ELAOPA” (2008).
      [View: , , ]

    • Combate Audiovisual, “DocumentĂĄrio VII ELAOPA” (2013).
      []

    • FederaciĂłn Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU), “I Encuentro Latinoamericano de
      Organizaciones Populares AutĂłnomas”, Lucha Libertaria (2003).
      []

    7.5.2 ARGENTINAZZO (2001) AND PIQUETEROS IN ARGENTINA,
    PENGUINS REVOLUTION (2006), DEVELOPMENTS (2011–2012) AND 2019
    MOBILIZATIONS IN CHILE

    Anarchists from this and other currents played a prominent role in some
    central episodes of popular Latin American struggles. At the end of
    2001, they participated in the Argentinazo, a series of massive
    protests in Argentina that demonstrated popular dissatisfaction in the
    face of the huge recession that had been raging in the country since
    1998, and the attempt to establish a state of emergency in the country,
    when conflicts intensified. Under the motto “Que se vayan todos!” [Out
    with all of them!], the movement took tens of thousands of people to the
    streets (39 were killed by the repression) and established popular
    assemblies in the neighborhoods, overthrew the president of the republic
    and highlighted the institutional and representation crisis that was
    slaughtering the country. The anarchist newspaper En la Calle covered
    the process and exerted some influence on it.

    In this uprising, the piqueteros â€” unemployed workers movement that
    grew stronger in the second half of the 1990s, in many cases assuming
    quite libertarian forms — were prominent players. At that time, and in
    the years to come, a group of anarchist militants played a central role
    in the formation and development of some of these movements. Both
    organized militants, as in the cases of AUCA and the Libertarian
    Socialist Organization (OSL), and also others with no specific
    organization. Among the most important, all in the greater Buenos Aires
    region with several hundred or a few thousand members, are: the MTD
    (Movement of Unemployed Workers) Oscar Barrios; the MTD 1Âș de Maio and
    the Popular Unity Movement (MUP).

    The 2001 uprising also motivated the rearticulation of the Argentine
    Regional Workers’ Federation (FORA). As of 2006, anarchists also had a
    prominent influence in the Federation of Grassroots Organizations (FOB)
    — several of these militants later joined the Argentine
    Anarcho-Communist Federation (FACA).

    • En la Calle. En la Calle: una lectura anarquista de la crisis
      neoliberal en Argentina (1997–2007)
      . Buenos Aires: Madreselva, 2012.

    • JosĂ© Antonio GutiĂ©rrez Danton, “Voces Anarco-Comunistas del
      Argentinazo” (5 partes), Anarkismo.net (2011–2012).
      []

    • Natalia Diaz, Anarquismo en el Movimiento Piquetero (NeuquĂ©n:
      2019).
      []

    • FederaciĂłn Anarquista de RosĂĄrio (FAR) (ed), “Impulso de Nucleos
      Anarquistas en los Movimientos de Trabajadores Desocupados en
      Argentina (años 90-actualidad) (2012).
      []

    • FederaciĂłn Obrera Regional Argentina (FORA), Consejo Federal,
      “Historia Reciente y Actualidad Sindical de la FORA
      Argentina”, CNT, 423 (2020).
      []

    In Chile, the student movement stood out on two occasions in the fight
    against the effects of privatization, which started during the Pinochet
    dictatorship, and disputed the country’s education project with the
    Bachelet government. In 2006, in the so-called “Penguins (School
    Students) Revolution”, students put hundreds of thousands (perhaps 1
    million) on the streets and occupied 400 schools. Under pressure, the
    government promised answers, but these proved to be harmless, so that,
    in 2011, the movement resurfaced, involving all sectors of Chilean
    education and worker support. 600 schools were occupied and
    demonstrations once again took hundreds of thousands to the streets of
    the country. The movement continued in 2012 and had further
    developments. In some way, all anarchist currents participated in this
    process, but they achieved a relevant influence through the Libertarian
    Students Front (FEL) — which, during this process and later, saw its
    influence translate into the election for important posts in the Chilean
    student movement.

    All currents also participated in the huge and radicalized mobilization
    that began in October 2019 and was interrupted in 2020 by the Covid-19
    pandemic. This movement, although initiated in a struggle against the
    increase in transport, embodied popular dissatisfaction with numerous
    effects of neoliberalism, all related to the precariousness of life. Not
    only did it take more than a million people to the streets, but it
    adopted combative tactics of democratic violence, the antecedent of
    which is the 2018 Feminist General Strike, taking the struggle to
    another level. State repression and terror were enormous.

    • Beatriz S. Pinochet, “La ‘RevoluciĂłn PingĂŒina’ y el Cambio Cultural
      en Chile”, CLACSO (2007).
      []

    • Dagmar M. L. Zibas, “A ‘Revolta dos Pinguins’ e o novo pacto
      educacional chileno”, Revista Brasileira de Educação, 13 (2008).
      []

    • Scott Nappalos, “Entrevista con Felipe RamĂ­rez, del FEL de
      Chile”, Anarkismo.net (2012).
      []

    • Bree Busk, “The Popular Assemblies at the Heart of the Chilean
      Uprising”, ROAR Magazine (2019).
      []

    • Pablo Abufom, “Los Seis Meses que Transformaron
      Chile”, Anarkismo.net (2020).
      []

    • Anarkismo.net (ed), “Chile: El Oasis del Caos (y otros textos)”
      (2019). []

    7.5.3 OAXACA COMMUNE (2006) IN MEXICO AND JUNE PROTESTS (2013) IN
    BRAZIL

    In Mexico, still in 2006, the Commune of Oaxaca was formed, a huge
    mobilization that, for five months, occupied the city, having as a main
    organizing instrument the Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca
    (APPO). Unleashed by teachers’ wage demands, the movement grew
    enormously, with the solidarity of countless popular sectors, after
    government repression. It came to control part of the city, permanently
    occupying its central square and demanding the resignation of the
    governor. It promoted large demonstrations, with hundreds of thousands
    of people and, in at least one case, a million; it erected barricades
    and fought the forces of order in the streets; blocked roads, set fire
    to government buildings, occupied 13 radios – broadcasting their own
    programming; it created the Oaxaca Women’s Coordination (COMO) to work
    on their specific demands. It was severely repressed, ending with 20
    dead and hundreds arrested and wounded. Anarchists were present
    throughout the process, both in APPO and outside. They had considerable
    influence, through initiatives such as the Popular Indigenous Council of
    Oaxaca — Ricardo Flores Magón (CIPO-RFM), the Magonista Zapatista
    Alliance (AMZ) and the La Okupa space. In that country, anarchist
    participation in the Authentic Front of Work (FAT) in the 1990s, the
    most recent conformation of the Anarchist Federation of Mexico (FAM),
    and the oldest social library, Reconstruir,  also stood out in the
    period.

    • Marco Estrada Saavedra, “La AnarquĂ­a Organizada: las barricadas como
      el subsistema de seguridad de la Asamblea Popular de los Pueblos de
      Oaxaca”, Estudios SociolĂłgicos, 28 (2010).
      []

    • SĂ©rgio SĂĄnchez, “AnarquĂ­a y Corrientes Libertarias en el Movimiento
      Insurreccional Oaxaqueño”, Rojo y Negro (2007).
      []

    • Gilson Dantas. MĂ©xico Rebelde: Oaxaca, uma comuna do sĂ©culo
      XXI
       (SĂŁo Paulo / BrasĂ­lia, 2009).

    In Mexico, anarchist participation in the construction of “Jornadas
    Magonistas” was also important, in different parts of the country in
    1994, 1999, and practically every year after 2000. Among several other
    actors, the Magonist Autonomous Collective (CAMA) was part of this
    construction.

    • “Ciudad de MĂ©xico: Jornadas Magonistas en octubre”, A-Infos (2004).
      []

    • “Jornada de DifusiĂłn del Pensamiento Magonista” (2014).
      []

    • Thierry Libertad, “Entrevista com o “Centro Social Libertario —
      Ricardo Flores MagĂłn [e Colectivo AutĂłnomo
      Magonista]”, Divergences (2008).
      []

    In Brazil, anarchists also played an important role in the so-called
    “Jornadas de Junho”, in 2013, a movement started by the fight against
    the price increase in public transport, victorious in several regions,
    but which ended up expanding their agendas. Continuing in different
    locations for practically a year, this widespread revolt, reinforced by
    savage strikes and mobilizations by women and LGBTs demanding sexual
    freedom, harshly criticized spending on the World Cup, media
    oligopolies, multinationals, police violence and others atrocities. It
    put the country’s political representation in check, and demanded the
    improvement of public services such as health and education. The
    movement, which took over one million to the streets across the country,
    and which received massive support from the population, had an important
    participation from all anarchist currents, which were present at the
    Block of Struggles in Porto Alegre, in the Free Pass Movement (MPL) in
    different locations, as well as in the Black Blocs and many other
    initiatives.

    • Wallace de Moraes, 2013: Revolta dos Governados ou, para quem esteve
      presente, Revolta do Vinagre
       (Rio de Janeiro, 2018).

    • Pablo Ortellado et alli. Vinte Centavos: a luta contra o
      aumento
       (SĂŁo Paulo, 2013). [Read
      a ]

    • Federação Anarquista GaĂșcha (FAG), Pela Força das Ruas: seleção das
      cartas de opiniĂŁo da FAG/CAB durante as jornadas de luta de 2013
      .
      (Porto Alegre, 2014).

    • Wallace dos Santos de Moraes, Camila Rodrigues Jourdan e Andrey
      Cordeiro Ferreira, “A Insurreição Invisível: uma interpretação
      anti-governista da rebeliĂŁo de 2013/14 no Brasil”, OTAL (2015).
      []

    • FederaciĂłn Anarquista de RosĂĄrio (FAR) (ed), “Movimento Passe Livre y
      Movilizaciones Populares en Brasil” (2013).
      []

    7.6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    7.6.1 SYNDICALISM IN NIGERIA AND SIERRA LEONE

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, three achievements stand out. Two of them linked
    to the camp of anarcho-syndicalism and revolutionary syndicalism. In
    Nigeria, the Awareness League (AL), which had started as a study group
    in the mid-1980s, from 1990 to 1991 became an anarcho-syndicalist
    organization. It came to have 1,000 members with a presence in 15 states
    in the south of the country, and made anti-militarism at the heart of
    its struggle. It was a member of the IWA-AIT from 1996 onwards and ended
    in 1999, with the end of the military regime. In Sierra Leone, between
    1988 and the early 1990s, an IWW section was formed. This first
    experience of revolutionary unionism in the country — which, in 1997,
    even in the midst of the civil war, added more than 3,000 diamond miners
    — was destroyed with the military coup that year, and, under repression,
    its leaders had to go into exile in Guinea.

    • Sam Mbah e I.E. Igariwey, African Anarchism: an exploration of the
      theory and practice of anarchism on the African continent
       (Tucson,
      1997).
      []

    • Sam Mbah, “Interview”, Libcom (2012).
      []

    • Industrial Workers of the World – Sierra Leone, “Letters” (1997).
      []

    7.6.2 PLATFORMISM IN SOUTH AFRICA AND ITS SURROUNDINGS

    The third belongs to the camp of platformism, carried out in South
    Africa and other countries. This tradition goes back to the oldest
    Workers’ Solidarity Federation (WSF, 1995–1999) and to a set of
    subsequent groups that, in 2003/2007, will found the ZACF. Forming up in
    the rise of the struggles that defeated apartheid and combating the
    emergent nationalism, increasingly integrated into neoliberal policies,
    these platformists, at various times with a majority of black members in
    their organizations, were based in South Africa, but managed to expand
    to other regions (Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe). With a presence in
    student work (at Witwatersrand University, participating in the protests
    of 1993, 1995, 2001), trade unions (in COSATU, participating in strikes
    in 1996 and 2008) and in different peripheral communities, these
    anarchists were also part of the Workers Library, since 1998, and the
    Anti-Privatization Forum, since its founding in 2000. They built an
    Anarchist Political School, a popular education project rooted in poor
    and majority black neighborhoods. Despite being modest in numbers, they
    stood out for their permanence and the influence they exercised in the
    theoretical field.

    • Southern African Anarchist & Syndicalist History Archive (SAASHA)
      Website: .

    • SAACHA, “Some Notes on the Chronology and History of ARM and WSF,
      1993–1997”. (2017).
      []

    • Leroy Maisiri, Phillip Nyalungu and Lucien van der Walt,
      “Anarchist/Syndicalist and Independent Marxist Intersections in
      Post-Apartheid Struggles, South Africa: the WSF/ZACF current in
      Gauteng, 1990s–2010s”, Globalizations (2020).
      []

    • Dale McKinley, “Interview with Lucien van der Walt on the Anti
      Privatisation FĂłrum”, SAHA (2010)
      []

    • Phillip Nyalungu, “Experiences of an Activist and ZACF
      Anarchist-Communist in Soweto, South Africa, 2002–2012”, Anarchist
      Studies
      , 27 (2019).
      []

    7.7 NORTH AFRICA

    7.7.1 ARAB SPRING AND IMPACTS IN TUNISIA AND EGYPT

    In North Africa, the Arab Spring, which in its different manifestations
    expressed a libertarian methodology of action, stimulated a resumption
    of anarchism in the region, which was marked by feminist positions.
    Egypt stands out, where the Libertarian Socialist Movement was founded
    in 2011, and where, in 2013, black blocs were already present in
    protests in Cairo; and Tunisia, whose Common Libertarian group, in 2015,
    hosted a meeting of Mediterranean anarchists, articulated with the
    Francophone Anarchist Federation (FAF) and the International Anarchist
    Federation (IFA).

    • Laura GaliĂĄn, “Squares, Occupy Movements and Arab Revolutions”, Carl
      Levy and Matthew Adams (eds), The Palgrave Handbook of
      Anarchism
       (London, 2019).
      []

    • Yeghig Tashjian, “The Fruits of ‘Arab Spring’; Islamism, Anarchism &
      Feminism”, Strategic Outlook (2013).
      []

    • North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists (NEFAC), “Egypt
      Unrest: Interview with an Egyptian anarchist”, Libcom (2011).
      []

    • Mohammed Bamyeh, “Anarchist Method, Liberal Intention, Authoritarian
      Lesson: The Arab Spring between three enlightenments”, Barry Maxwell
      and Raymond Craib (eds), No Gods, No Masters, No Peripheries: global
      anarchisms
       (Oakland, 2015).
      []

    • Le Commun Libertaire, Internationale des FĂ©dĂ©rations Anarchistes
      (IFA), FĂ©dĂ©ration Anarchiste [Francophone] (FAF), “Tunisie, Appel Ă 
      une PremiĂšre Rencontre Anarchiste MĂ©diterranĂ©enne! Mars 2015” (2014).
      []

    7.8 MIDDLE EAST

    7.8.1 ROJAVA REVOLUTION (FROM 2012 ON) IN NORTHERN SYRIA

    But it was in the Middle East that the Arab Spring bore its most
    promising fruits. In a context of national oppression and damaging
    effects of neoliberalism, the Kurdish people started, in 2012, in
    northern Syria, what has been called the Rojava Revolution. As a result
    of a long previous organization — in which the Kurdistan Workers’ Party
    (PKK) had a prominent role –, this revolution was established at the
    moment when the civil war broke out, and that region, refusing to
    support the government and the opposition, declared its autonomy. Thanks
    to an ideological turn of the PKK, which took place between 1995 and
    2005, greatly influenced by its leader Abdullah Öcallan, the
    revolutionary process was directed towards democratic confederalism.

    Against capitalism, the state and patriarchy, this revolution has been
    trying to establish an ecological and multi-ethnic society, with a
    self-managed economy, grassroots democracy (without a state, based on
    communes and councils), and the liberation of women. In addition, there
    are libertarian solutions to issues such as health, education, conflict
    resolution and defense. It is undoubtedly the largest anti-authoritarian
    revolutionary movement of the period in question, and the influence of
    anarchism — minority, but existing — can be understood from the
    influence that the works of anarchist Murray Bookchin had on Abdulla
    Öcallan, as well as in the presence of anarchist groupings in the
    region, as in the case of the International and Revolutionary People’s
    Guerrilla Forces (IRPGF), which operated between 2017 and 2018, and had
    an LGBT unit, the Queer Insurrection and Liberation Army (TQILA).

    • Editorial Descontrol (ed), La RevoluciĂłn Ignorada: liberaciĂłn de la
      mujer, democracia directa, y pluralismo radical en Oriente
      Medio
       (Barcelona, 2016).

    • CrimethInc, “’The Struggle Is not for Martyrdom but for Life’: A
      Critical Discussion about Armed Struggle with Anarchist Guerrillas in
      Rojava” (2017).
      []

    • Clare Maxwell, “Anarchy in the YPG: Foreign volunteers vow Turkish
      ‘revolution’”, Middle East Eye (2017).
      []

    • Kurdish Question, “Interview with the International Revolutionary
      People’s Guerrilla Forces”, The Anarchist Library (2017).
      []

    • Anonymous, “Not One Step Back: TQILA-IRPGF Speaks From
      Rojava”, It’s Going Down (2017).
      []

    7.8.2 OTHER INITIATIVES IN ISRAEL, PALESTINE, TURKEY, LEBANON,
    AFGHANISTAN AND IRAN

    Still in the Middle East, some initiatives stand out, also from this new
    millennium. In Israel, between 2003 and 2008, Anarchists Against the
    Wall (AAW) performed in hundreds of demonstrations in favor of the
    Palestinian cause and opposed the 2006 Lebanon and Gaza wars in 2008. In
    Turkey, since the beginning of the 2000s, anarchism has been greatly
    strengthened. Among other achievements, mention should be made of the
    founding of Revolutionary Anarchist Action (DAF), in 2007 — federating
    five collectives and encompassing, in addition to class guidelines and
    solidarity with the Kurds of Rojava, the fight against patriarchy,
    gender-based violence and the destruction of the environment — as well
    as some contribution to the 2013 Turkish Uprising. Finally, Lebanon’s
    initiatives — such as the Libertarian Communist Alternative, linked to
    the French Alternative Libertaire, and the new Kafeh movement — and the
    recent appearance of the Anarchist Union of Iran and Afghanistan (AUIF).

    • Uri Gordon and Ohal Grietzer (eds), Anarchists Against the Wall:
      direct action and solidarity with the Palestinian popular
      struggle
       (Oakland, 2013).
      []

    • Corporate Watch, “Building Autonomy in Turkey and Kurdistan: an
      interview with Revolucionary Anarchist Action”, Corporate
      Watch 
      (2015).
      []

    • CrimethInc, “Turkish Anarchists on the Fight for KobanĂȘ” (2015).
      []

    • “Anarchism in Turkey”, Libcom (2004).
      []

    • Bruno L. Rocha, “An Interview to a DAF Militant About the Solidarity
      for Rojava Social Process”, Anarkismo.net (2015).
      []

    • Robert Graham, “Lessons From the Turkish Uprising” (2013).
      []

    • Enough is Enough 14, “Interview with #Kafeh,
      Anarchist Movement in Lebanon” (2020).
      []

    • A Las Barricadas, “Interview with the Anarchist Union of Afghanistan
      & Iran”, Enough is Enough
      14 
      (2018). []

    7.9 OCEANIA

    7.9.1 TRAM DISPUTE (1990) IN AUSTRALIA AND THE INFLUENCE IN SOUTH
    AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

    In Oceania, there were striking episodes with anarchist participation,
    such as the Tram Dispute, in 1990, in Australia (Melbourne). At that
    time, the railway workers occupied stations and took control of
    operations, circulating without charging passengers, in a protest
    against the government, which wanted to extinguish the role of drivers.
    The Anarcho-Syndicalist Federation (ASF), despite its numerical
    limitations, had an important impact on this conflict and also on the
    debate on public transport in the region. The work of the IWA-AIT was
    also very relevant, which, through the Australian ASF, decided, from
    2013 onwards, to support the strengthening of anarcho-syndicalism in
    South and Southeast Asia. Such experiences are discussed a little later.

    • Dick Curlewis, Anarcho-Syndicalism in Practice: Melbourne Tram
      Dispute & Lockout
       (Sydney, 1997).
      []

    Other interesting experiences on this continent are the Melbourne
    Anarchist Communist Group, from Australia
    [], and the Aotearoa Workers’
    Solidarity Movement, from New Zealand [].

    7.10 SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

    7.10.1  SYNDICALISM IN BANGLADESH AND INDONESIA AND OTHER ASIAN
    EXPERIENCES

    In this region, although anarchism emerged in a dispersed way between
    the 1980s and 2000s, it was in the decade of 2010 that two outstanding
    cases were consolidated, both linked to the IWA-AIT. In Bangladesh, an
    anarcho-syndicalist current emerged from a critique of Marxism, founding
    the Bangladesh Anarcho-Syndicalist Federation (BASF) which, in 2014, had
    60 federated groups and 1500 members; of these, almost half were women,
    several of whom are members of the Bangladesh
    Anarcho-Syndicalist Women’s Union (BAWU). In Indonesia, there were
    also important fruits, such as the Regional Workers’ Fraternity (PPR), a
    network of nuclei in seven regions of the country, and the most recent
    Anarcho-Syndical Workers’ Fraternity (PPAS). Other, less expressive
    initiatives have also been developed in the region, in countries such as
    India, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and East Timor.

    Finally, in the Far East, there is a case highlighted in Japan, which is
    the formation, in 2004, of Freeter Zenpan Roso, a revolutionary unionist
    influence group that has been organizing precarious workers in the
    country.

    • Bangladesh Anarcho-Syndicalist Federation (BASF), “Question & Answers
      with BASF”
      (2018). []

    • Vadim Damier and Kirill Limanov, “Anarchism in Indonesia”, The
      Anarchist Library
       (2017).
      []

    • Vadim Damier and Kirill Limanov, “History of Anarchism in Malaya /
      Singapore / Malaysia”, The Anarchist Library (2017).
      []

    • John Crump, “The Anarchist Movement in Japan, 1906–1996”, The
      Anarchist Library
       (1996).
      []

    • Sabu Kohso, “Freeter Zenpan Roso – PrekĂ€re in Japan”, Direkte
      Aktion
       (2008).
      []

    8. HISTORY AND THEORY: CLASS, ECOLOGY, RACE/ETHNICITY, NATIONALITY, GENDER AND SEXUALITY

    8.1 RECOVERY ON HISTORIOGRAPHY AND ACADEMIC PRESENCE AT
    UNIVERSITIES

    In all regions of the globe there has been a keen interest in recovering
    the history of anarchism, anarcho-syndicalism and revolutionary
    syndicalism, as well as in translating old and recent writings, and
    discussing numerous theoretical issues. On this topic in general, some
    texts can be mentioned.

    • Randall Amster, Abraham DeLeon, Luis A. Fernandez, Anthony J.
      Nocella, II, and Deric Shannon (eds), Contemporary Anarchist
      Studies An introductory anthology of anarchy in the
      academy 
      (London / New York, 2009).
      []

    • Nildo Avelino, “Apresentação: Acerca dos Estudos Anarquistas
      ContemporĂąneos”, PolĂ­tica e Trabalho, 36 (2012).
      []

    8.2 DATABASES, RESEARCH INSTITUTES AND NETWORKS, JOURNALS, ACADEMIC
    GROUPS AND CONFERENCES

    Certain initiatives have been very important. Physical
    databases,
     such as the Kate Sharpley Library, England
    []; the International Centre for
    Anarchist Research (CIRA), Switzerland [];
    the International Institute of Social History (IIHS), the Netherlands
    []; and virtual databases, such as the
    internet portals Libcom [], The Anarchist Library
    [] and Zabalaza Books
    []. Research institutes and networks,
    magazines and journals, academic groups and conferences.
     Examples of
    initiatives in this field are the Anarchist Studies Network (ASN)
    [], its international
    conferences, as well as the journal Anarchist
    Studies
     [].

    Physical and virtual propaganda and dissemination
    instruments.
     Examples are: Anarchist Fairs (Bay Area, in the United
    States [];  SĂŁo Paulo, in
    Brazil []; Hong
    Kong
    []
    etc.); book publishers such as Jura Books (Australia)
    [], Freedom Press (England)
    [] and Anarres (Argentina)
    []; magazines, Rivista Anarchica (Italy)
    [] and Ekintza Zuzena (Spain)
    []; newspapers like El
    Libertario
     (Venezuela) [];
    online news services, such as A-Infos [].

    Theoretical productions around themes such as social classes, ecology,
    race/ethnicity, gender, sexuality, nationality have been developed, many
    of which have been based on the resumption of classic anarchist
    contributions. In this broad movement, we have sought to resume aspects
    that, to a large extent, were neglected, be it anarchism itself and the
    revolutionary forms of unionism, the colonial and post-colonial world,
    or even the oppressed classes, blacks, indigenous people, women and
    LGBTs.

    The following is a list of some interesting examples of studies in these
    fields, which, however, are far from representing the complete
    production of this period. But they serve to illustrate a little of what
    has been done.

    8.3 THEORETICAL PRODUCTIONS: SOCIAL CLASSES

    Different productions have developed a concept of social classes deeply
    linked to a conception of power, which goes beyond the economic sphere,
    relating the ownership of the means of production (and the exploitation
    of labor) with the ownership of the means of administration, control and
    coercion (and political-bureaucratic domination and physical coercion),
    and with ownership of the means of production and diffusion of knowledge
    (and cultural-ideological domination). They explain, thus, not only the
    phenomenon of power itself, but the relationship that exists between the
    different forms of domination within the social classes that are formed
    in the capitalist and statist system.

    • Alfredo Errandonea, Sociologia de la DominaciĂłn, (Montevideu/Buenos
      Aires, 1989).

    • Coordenação Anarquista Brasileira (CAB), “Nossa Concepção de Poder
      Popular”, Socialismo LibertĂĄrio, 1 (2012).
      []

    • Coordenação Anarquista Brasileira (CAB). “Capitalismo, Estado, Luta
      de Classes e ViolĂȘncia”, Socialismo LibertĂĄrio, 4 (2020).
      []

    8.4 THEORETICAL PRODUCTIONS: ECOLOGY

    Others have been working on themes related to ecology, differentiating
    themselves from capitalist environmentalism, offering critical
    explanations to the planetary environmental crisis, and pointing out
    possible ways out. In the case of deep ecology, anthropocentrism is
    broken with and it is understood that all animals and plants have the
    right to coexist with humanity, in a form of practically untouched
    nature. In the case of social ecology, it is understood that most
    ecological problems have their roots in society, and that the
    environmental crisis will not be solved without a major transformation
    of contemporary capitalism and the establishment of ethical limits for
    human intervention in the environment. In both cases, the notion of
    human struggle against the environment is broken with and the human
    being is understood as part of nature.

    • Murray Bookchin et al., Deep Ecology and Anarchism: a
      polemic
       (London, 1997).
      []

    • Murray Bookchin, “What is Social Ecology”, The Anarchist
      Library 
      (1993).
      []

    • Graham Purchase, Anarchism and Environmental Survival (Edmonton,
      2011).
      []

    • Graham Purchase, Anarchism and Ecology (Petersham, 1993).
      []

    8.5 THEORETICAL PRODUCTIONS: RACE/ETHNICITY AND NATIONALITY

    Different authors have worked with issues related to race, ethnicity and
    nationality. Some have even maintained the notion of “black anarchism”
    and others have considered an “anarcho-indigenous alliance” to be
    fundamental. Others have been proposing ways to decolonize anarchism. In
    addition to rescuing anarchist/syndicalist contributions in this field,
    others have pointed out how racism is linked to the emergence of
    capitalism and the modern state and has historically been used to split
    the working class. And that imperialism must be understood as the work
    of the ruling classes of the oppressing country over all classes of the
    oppressed country. In this way, they understand that the fight against
    racism, imperialism and neocolonialism must take place on class,
    anti-statist and anti-capitalist bases, that is, contrary to
    nationalism.

    • Black Rose Anarchist Federation, Black Anarchism: A
      Reader.
       []

    • Lorenzo Kom’boa Ervin, “Anarchism and Black Revolution”, The
      Anarchist Library
       (1993).
      []

    • Alas de Xue, “Aliança Anarco-IndĂ­gena: contra o poder e o capital,
      fortalecer a aliança anarco-indĂ­gena”, Protesta!, 3 (2006).
      []

    • Maia Ramnath. Decolonizing Anarchism (Oakland, 2011).
      []

    • Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Front (ZACF), “Fighting and Defeating
      Racism” (2010).
      []

    • Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Front (ZACF), “Anti-Imperialism and
      National Liberation” (2010).
      []

    8.6 THEORETICAL PRODUCTIONS: GENDER AND SEXUALITY

    Others, especially women and LGBT people, have worked on gender and
    sexuality, in a critical dialogue with existing intellectual productions
    (intersectional, classist, radical feminism, queer theory, etc.). They
    establish not only a critique of the anarchist/syndicalist camp itself —
    which, despite their conception contrary to all forms of domination,
    were often unable to overcome oppressive practices in their own
    structures — but also transformative projects with a centrality on
    gender and sexuality issues. They have sought to explain the
    relationship between such issues and the capitalist and statist system,
    in addition to their relationship with classes and identities.

    • Dark Star (ed), Quiet Rumors: an Anarcha-Feminist Reader (Oakland,
      2002).
      []

    • Ruth Kinna, “Anarchism and Feminism”, Nathan Jun (ed), Brill’s
      Companion to Anarchism and Philosophy
       (Leiden/Boston, 2018).
      []

    • C.B. Darring et al., Queering Anarchism: addressing and undressing
      power and desire
       (Oakland, 2012).
      []

    8.7 PRACTICES LINKED TO THESE THEORETICAL ISSUES

    Alongside these theoretical discussions, there have been, in many
    countries, numerous initiatives linked to these same issues. The most
    interesting case seems to be that of the Rojava Revolution, which, in a
    sense, has taken on all these issues. But there are many other cases.
    Classist struggles have been carried out by the majority of
    revolutionary syndicalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist
    organizations, mobilizing formal and informal workers, waged workers and
    precarious workers. Many of these same organizations also have work
    linked to ecological, anti-racist, anti-imperialist, feminist struggles,
    etc. At the same time, other organizations, collectives and affinity
    groups — some of which have already been mentioned — have been working
    more specifically on these issues.

    For example, in the United States, initiatives like Earth First
    [], Earth Liberation Front
    [] and animal rights groups
    have taken over ecological struggles and are promoting veganism, as well
    as the Institute for Social Ecology
    []; movements such as Anarchist People
    of Color (APOC)
    [],
    bringing together anarchist ex-members of the Black Panthers, have
    dedicated themselves to the anti-racist struggle, as well as the
    WSF-ZACF current, in South Africa. In Colombia, the Alas de Xue
    collective, and in Mexico, the Popular Indigenous Council of
    Oaxaca-Ricardo Flores MagĂłn (CIPO-RFM) collectives
    [] and the Magonista Zapatista Alliance
    (AMZ) have been emphasizing the fight against oppression of traditional
    and indigenous populations. In several countries,
    anarchists/syndicalists mobilized against US imperialism in the Gulf,
    Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. In Israel, the AAW contributed to the
    struggle for national liberation from Palestine. In different countries
    in the Middle East and North Africa — something that also happens, to a
    greater or lesser extent, on all continents — there has been a major
    engagement in feminist struggles. Such are the cases of BAWU, Bagladesh,
    Mujeres Creando, Bolivia [], and the
    Revolutionary Anarcho-Feminist Group (RAG), Ireland
    [] . The latter two — and others, such
    as Sweden’s Fag Army — are also taking on struggles against homophobia
    and transphobia.

    9. OTHER RELEVANT SOURCES

    “Anarchism: A Documentary” Project

    Ten years ago, a South African and an Austrian passed through different
    parts of the world doing interviews with anarchists and, recently
    (2020), started making them available on the Internet.

    []

    They also did an online survey in 2010 with anarchists from different
    countries, checking profile, ideas, conceptions etc. Taking into account
    the appropriate methodological concerns raised by the researchers
    (spontaneous responses, almost all respondents from the United States
    and English-speaking Western Europe, etc.), it is an interesting source.
    It allows one to deepen the knowledge of this anarchist universe of the
    North Atlantic Axis (especially of the English-speaking countries):

    []

    Some other books:

    • Robert Graham, Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian
      Ideas. Vol. 3: The New Anarchism (1974–2012) 
      (Montreal, 2013)
      []

    • Ruth Kinna (ed), The Continuum Companion to Anarchism (London / New
      York, 2012).
      []

    • Nathan Jun (ed), Brill’s Companion to Anarchism and
      Philosophy 
      (Leiden/Boston, 2018).




    Source: Theanarchistlibrary.org