This vote was part of a general right-ward drift in DSA since Biden’s election. See Haley Pessin and Andrew Sernatinger, “DSA Sliding Right Under Biden” Tempest (September 8, 2012) https://www.tempestmag.org/2021/09/dsa-sliding-right-under-biden/.
 Andy Sernatinger and Emma Wilde Botta “Strange Alchemy: The Party Surrogate and Socialist Politics in DSA” Tempest (June 5, 2021) https://www.tempestmag.org/2021/06/strange-alchemy/.
 Eric Blanc, “We Should Focus on Scaling Up Working-Class Power, Not Debating the Dirty Break” The Call (August 6, 2021) https://socialistcall.com/2021/08/06/dsa-dirty-break-electoral-strategy/.
 Jacobin (December 4, 2017) https://www.jacobinmag.com/2017/12/democratic-party-minnesota-farmer-labor-floyd-olson.
 “Despite more recent analyses mirroring some of Blanc’s developments, see for instance the earlier Paul Heideman, “It’s Their Party” Jacobin (February 4, 2016) https://www.jacobinmag.com/2016/02/democratic-party-realignment-civil-rights-mcgovern-meany-rustin-sanders; and Kim Moody, “From Realignment to Reinforcement” Jacobin (January 26, 2017) https://www.jacobinmag.com/2017/01/democratic-party-campaign-fundraising-wasserman-schultz.
 The Birth of the Labour Party Has Many Lessons for Socialists Today” Jacobin (February 15, 2021) https://www.jacobinmag.com/2021/02/labour-party-uk-lessons-socialists.
 Blanc also praised the BLP’s continued electoral alliance with the Liberals prior to 1918-1920, as a means of winning workers who had remained loyal to the Liberals.
Seth Ackerman, “A Blueprint for a New Party” Jacobin (November 8, 2016) (http://www.jacobinmag.com/2016/11/bernie-sanders-democratic-labor-party-ackerman) and Jared Abbott and Dustin Guastella, “A Socialist Party in Our Time?” Catalyst 3, 2 (Summer 2019).
 Blanc, “We Should Focus”.
 “Strange Alchemy.” Sernatinger and Wilde Botta as well as Moody effectively dismantle claims that the voting base of the Democrats remains, after forty years of neo-liberal dominance, overwhelmingly working class, rather than increasingly upper middle class.
 For a discussion of the different dynamics of class struggle and electoral politics, see David McNally and Charles Post, “Beyond Electoralism: Mass Action and the Remaking of the Working Class” Spectre 2, 1 (Spring 2021).
 Joe Evica and Andrew Sernatinger, “Taking the Dirty Break Seriously: Socialists, Elections, and the Democratic Party” Tempest (September 10, 2020) https://www.tempestmag.org/2020/09/taking-the-dirty-break-seriously/. I made a similar argument in “Debating ‘The Case for Bernie 2020’” Socialist Worker (October 16, 2018) https://socialistworker.org/2018/10/16/debating-the-case-for-bernie-2020.
 Kim Moody, “’Dirty Break’ for Independent Political Action or a Way to Stay Stuck in the Mud?” New Politics (June 9, 2020) https://newpol.org/dirty-break-for-independent-political-action-or-a-way-to-stay-stuck-in-the-mud/ and “What Can We Learn from the Birth of the British Labour Party” Tempest (Forthcoming 2021).
 I am indebted to Kim Moody for the material in the following paragraphs.
 Heather Gautney Crashing the Party: From The Bernie Sanders Campaign to a Progressive Movement (London: Verso Books, 2018), pp. 132-134 explicitly recognizes this.
 I am indebted to personal correspondence with Kim Moody for these insights.
 Sernatinger and Wilde Botta, “Strange Alchemy” use this term, building on the analysis detailed by Moody in “From Realignment to Reinforcement” and in On New Terrain: How Capital is Reshaping the Battleground of Class War (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2017), Chapters Seven to Nine.
 Moody, “From Realignment to Reinforcement”.
 All the data in the following paragraphs is from Moody, “From Realignment to Reinforcement”
 Branko Marcetic, “Bernie Sanders Is Making His Pitch to Swing Voters” Jacobin (September 1, 2021) https://jacobinmag.com/2021/09/bernie-sanders-reconciliation-bill-senate-working-people.
 “Strange Alchemy”.
 Eric Leif Davin and Staughton Lynd, “Picket Line and Ballot Box: The Forgotten Legacy of the Local Labor Party Movement, 1932-1935” Radical History Review 22 (1980), pp. 43-63. Eric Leif Davin, “The Very Last Hurrah? The Defeat of the Labor Party Idea, 1934-36” in Staughton Lynd (ed.), “We Are All Leaders”: The Alternative Unionism of the Early 1930s” (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1996, pp. 117-172.